Development and application of new type youtiao raising agent (aluminum-free)

By Wei Fenglu
Angel Bakery and Fermentation Pasta Technology Center

As the Chinese traditional food, youtiao is made of flour, water and bulk agent in the deep-fried method at high temperature, the finished product has golden color, tastes crispy outside and soft inside, which is deeply loved by the Chinese people!

Formula of traditional youtiao

The common youtiao is made of dough prepared by white alum, alkali, salt, water and flour in the deep-fried method at high temperature.

Principle for traditional fluffy youtiao

The traditional method for making youtiao is “white alum method” that uses white alum and baking soda.

  • Na2CO3+H2O=NaHCO3+NaOH 2NaHCO3=Na2CO3+H2O+CO2↑

  • 2KAl(SO4)2·12H2O+6NaOH=2Al(OH)3+K2SO4+24H2O+3Na2SO4

The produced aluminium hydroxide exists in the colloid form, which is conductive to enclosing CO2 gas and making the dough have better expansion.

White alum is a compound salt with the main component of aluminum sulfate, which contains many aluminum elements, the test proves that over-intake of aluminum has certain harm to human body, and the frequent intake is harmful to health.

Angel establishes technological breakthrough team

In February 2007, Angel formally established a technological breakthrough team to start the development ofnew type youtiao bulk agent without aluminum.

Principle of new type youtiao bulk agent without aluminum

C6H8O7+NaHCO3= NaC6H7O7+ H2O+CO2

C4H6O6+NaHCO3= NaC4H5O6+ H2O+CO2

Formula of youtiao without aluminum



Angel youtiao bulk agent without aluminum










Production process of youtiao without aluminum

Weighing ingredient

  • Weigh various ingredients according to the proportion

  • Pay attention to the selection of flour (short forming time, long stabilizing time)

  • Use warm water in winter

  • The water quantity can be adjusted (55-65%)

Kneading dough

  • 4-5min at low speed, 2min at high speed, evenly mix the dough, with slight gluten

  • Manual dough kneading is also allowed

Setting aside (fermentation)

  • The main purpose of fermentation is to make acid, alkaline and salt fully react and make gluten fully


  • Divide the dough into small unit of about 1,000g, brush the surface with oil, cover with film, place in the environment of 36-40℃for 2 hours, take out the dough and set aside (for about 5 hours at normal temperature)

  • Or adopt overnight fermentation at normal temperature, which is suitable for workshop production


Take out the dough, stretch to long strip of 8-10cm, and then set aside for 3min, cut into small piece of about 2cm, press two into one, stretch long and fry. Oil or flour can be used in the operation to prevent from sticking hands.


With the oil temperature of 180-220℃, fry for about 2min till the surface becomes golden, stir in the frying to avoid uneven heating.

Comparison of new type youtiao without aluminum and traditional youtiao


Parameters of new type youtiao without aluminum

Traditional youtiao

Bulk (specific volume)

Fluffy, the specific volume is greater than 5.0

The specific volume is greater than 5.5


More crispy


Taste and flavor

Special taste and flavor of youtiao

Bitter, taste of ammonia

Water content



Oil absorption rate




Conform to GB-2760-2007 standard

Aluminum content seriously exceeds the standard


Short period, simple operation, suitable for industrialized production

Complex process, long period, more than 8 hours, requiring constant kneading dough, unsuitable for industrialized production

Bulk agent cost calculation

RMB 0.025 Yuan for each piece of youtiao (80g/piece)

RMB 0.01 Yuan for each piece of youtiao (80g/piece)

Future and prospect of new type youtiao without aluminum
We believe that with the gradual implementation of new Food Safety Law, under the common efforts of scientific research institutes and food enterprises, the safe, nutritional and healthy new type youtiao will be widely concerned, and the youtiao industry will become stronger and stronger!

About Yeast & Baking

Angel Yeast has absorbed the essence of the global baking industry to build a baking service platform and to provide more comprehensive solutions for the baking industry.

About Angel:

Angel Yeast Company is a high-tech listed company specializing in yeast and biotech. Product business covers Yeast and Baking, Yeast Extract-Savoury, Nutrition & Health and Biotechnology fields. It is one of the world's leading companies in the yeast industry. Angel has 12 holding subsidiaries and provides products and services for more than 150 countries and regions.

Press contact:

Angel Yeast Co., Ltd.

Address: 168 Chengdong Avenue, Yichang, Hubei, P. R. China

Tel: +86-717-6369520

Fax: +86-717-6370680


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